Friday, September 07, 2007

sioux history

Souix History, was passed down from generation to generation by tribal historians, elders, and oral storytellers. A written account was made of the important events each year with pictographs painted on hides, which were called winter counts or story robes.

The Great Sioux Nation traces its roots to the "Oceti Sakowin" or "Seven Council Fires." Each of the allied bands within this nation spoke one of three different dialects. The Santee spoke Dakota; the Yankton, Nakota; and the Teton, Lakota. Many Sioux still speak their original languages today, either as a first language with the older members of this tribe, or as a second language for the younger members, who now speak primarily English.

There are several theories concerning the origin of the Sioux Nation. Lakota creation stories trace the nation's birth to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Tribal oral stories say the Sioux once lived within the earth, underground, and they emerged to the surface through Wind Cave in South Dakota.

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Thursday, September 06, 2007

The great sioux nation is divided into divisions, sub-divisions, and bands

Santee Sioux (Dakota)

The Santee people migrated north and westward from the south and east into Ohio then to Minnesota. The Santee were a woodland people who thrived on hunting, fishing and subsistence farming. Migrations of Anishinaabe/Chippewa people from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Santee further into Minnesota and west and southward, giving the name "Dakota Territory" to the northern expanse west of the Mississippi and up to its headwaters.

Yankton-Yanktonai Sioux (Nakota)

The Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana, or the Yankton ("campers at the end") and Yanktonai ("lesser campers at the end") divisions consist of two bands or two of the seven council fires. According to Nasunatanka and Matononpa in 1880, the Yanktonai are divided into two sub-groups known as the Upper Yanktonai and the lower Yanktonai (Hunkpatina). The Yankton-Yanktonai moved into northern Minnesota. In the 1700s, they were recorded as living in the Mankato region of Minnesota.

Teton Sioux (Lakota)

The western Santee obtained horses, probably in the 17th century (although some historians date the arrival of horses in South Dakota to 1720), and moved further west, onto the Great Plains, becoming the Titonwan tribe, subsisting on the buffalo herds and corn-trade with their linguistic cousins, the Mandan and Hidatsa along the Missouri.

The Sioux are divided into ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, and further branched into bands. The Yankton-Yanktonai, the smallest division, reside on the Yankton reservation in South Dakota and the Northern portion of Standing Rock Reservation, while the Santee live mostly in Minnesota and Nebraska, but include bands in the Sisseton-Wahpeton, Flandreau, and Crow Creek Reservations in South Dakota. The Lakota are the westernmost of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota.

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Tuesday, September 04, 2007

Misconceptions about native americans of North America

Probably the biggest misconception non-indians have about native american indians is that they are all the same, that they share a common culture, common beliefs, and a common governmental structure. Many people picture the Plains Indian tribes as representative of all Indians because of their romanticized portrayal in Hollywood movies.

In reality,there are well over 1,000 separate native american indian tribes in the United States and Canada, and hundreds more in Mexico, Central America and South America. While they do share some general philosophies on life, just as most non-indian people in the United States, Canada, and Europe do, each tribe has their own culture, beliefs, languages, and religions, similar to differences separate countries in Europe and North America do, or different states in the US have different traditions.

Individual indian tribes vary in size from less than ten surviving members to more than half a million tribal members. Some tribes have reservation lands, some do not. About half of all native american tribal members continue to live on reservations, the other half live off reservations in predominately anglo towns and cities. Most live in houses just like you do, whether on or off the reservations. The Plains Indian tribes use tipis mainly on special occasions, like powwow gatherings. Other native americans never lived in tipis at all, even in the old days. Some tribes built their homes from bark, woven reeds, bent sticks, thatched palms, partially submerged pits in the ground or side of a hill, or adobe bricks.

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Monday, September 03, 2007

California Indians Historic Timeline

California Indians are members of more than sixty indian tribes. Many California indians are referred to as Mission Indians or Rancheria indians.

8,000 B.C. - According to leading archeologists, ceramic bowls, spears, and coiled baskets found in the Barona Ranch area in Southern California, were used by California Indians more than 10,000 years ago.

2,000 B.C. - Ancestors of the Miwok Indians of Yosemite first arrived in the region, establishing villages along the Merced River.

1,000 B.C. - According to archeological evidence, the Paiute Indians first arrived in the southeastern part of California at this time, before expanding eastward into Nevada, Arizona, and Utah.

390 B.C. - According to human fossils found on the campus of Santa Clara University, the Ohlone people were living in the area more than 2,400 years ago.

1542 - Captain Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo landed on the California coast and claimed it for Spain.

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